Traveling to Munich and Bavaria;
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let me help you plan your travel holiday as your private tour guide
on several day trips, in Munich & Bavaria.
Munich's Historical Calendar of Events:
Here you will find some of the most important dates and facts
concerning this 850 year old city.
500 - 515: Celtic tribes settle in the foothills of the Alps. In about 515 they are defeated by the Romans who took the region into their province of Raetia.
After repeated invasions by Teutonic tribes, the Roman Empire abandons Raetia. Teutons and Romans stay behind and form the clan of the Baiovarii. Notice the relation to the English name Bavaria!
777 AD: Monks founded a small monastery on the Isar called (bei Mönchen) the symbol for the city is established. A monk with his arms extended can be found in the city center today.
1070: Herzog von Bayer the Welfen established Monasteries in Pfaffenwinkel (Priest Corner). Visit my tour number 9.
1158 - 80: The Guelph Heinrich der Löwe (Henry the Lion) founds "Muenchen" (The monks place). Their trading and currency rights are confirmed by Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa. Munich is founded officially by Henry the Lion on June 14th, 1158.
Heinrich the Löwe gave orders for the bridge over the Isar owned by Bishop Otto von Freising to be destroyed. Then he built his own bridge over the river Isar in Munich. In 1180 Heinrich was removed from power and sent off to England, he would be replaced by Otto von Wittelsbach.
1175: First walls as a fortification Munich are built around Munich. Only two towers of this walls can still be seen today.
1214: Munich is first mentioned or recognized as a town.
1240: The Bishop of Friesing loses control over Munich to the Wittelsbach's, who in turn establish their first palace residence in 1255. Herzog Ludwig der Strenge 1253-94 will then bring the first division of Bavaria. The city of Munich begins to boom.
1278: Founding of Alte Peter, Munich's oldest church dating back Romanists times is still standing in the city center.
1294: Munich's first Constitution is written.
1301: Ludwig the Bayer is made King and later Kaiser 1328-47. He built the outer city walls.
1327: A fire destroys one third of the town.
1328: Ludwig IV, "The Bayer", who is part of the House of Wittelsbach, becomes head of the Holy Roman Empire. Under his reign, Munich grows into a metropolitan city. He strengthens his position by granting the city the salt monopoly, thus creating an additional income through taxes.
1397: The city revolts!
1429: The city burns down again.
1504: Munich has a population of 13,500 and becomes the capital of Bavaria, under the rule of Herzog Albert IV 1506.
1597 - 1623: Herzog Maximillian I. Builds the old Residence Theatre (Cuvillies Theatre), and begins the English Garden by ordering potatoes planted there. The 30 years war and the pest kill many of Munich population which goes from 22000 to 9000.
1623: Munich becomes residence city of the Prince of Bavaria.
1632: Gustav Adolf II of Sweden captures the Munich, during the Thirty-Year War (1618-1648). The city gates Isar Tor, the Neuhauser Tor and the Sendlinger Tor can still be seen in their original splendor today.
1705 - 1714: Munich is occupied under the rule of the Habsburgs. On Dec 24 the suppression of a peasant revolt against the Austrian occupiers is described as the "Sendlinger Christmas Slaughter"; on the night from Dec 24 to 25; 1100 farmers were slaughtered here. The revolt was lead by the famous black smith from Kochel who also died.
1742: Wittelsbach Karl Albert voted as Romanist - German Kaiser he will be followed by Maxmillin III.
1759: Bavarian academy of sciences founded.
1800: Bavarian University is moved from Ingolstadt to Landshut.
1805: Napoleon occupies Munich.
1806: Kurfürst Max Joseph 1799-1825 is named Maximillian Joseph von Bayern the first King of Bavaria by Napoleon!
1806: Munich becomes the capital of the Bavaria.
1815: Bayern joins the German state.
1818: Bavaria becomes the first German state with a constitution. The Bavarian parliament is also found in Munich, which has become the seat of the new bishop of Freising.
1825 - 1848: King Ludwig I named King of Bavaria. Munich becomes a city of art under Ludwig's rule. Architects Leo von Klenze and Friedrich von Gärtner build the Ludwig street, the Königsbau and the Festsaalbau of the Residence, the Königsplatz and the Old Pinakothek. Klenze builds the Ruhmeshalle - the hall of fame - on the Theresienwiese. Schwanthaler built the symbol of Munich a statue woman holding a reef called the "Bavaria"; Munich's statue of liberty!
Munich Bavaria Statue had price of 1 174000,00 guldens; the nose is 36 cm long. Ludwig I was married on Oct 17, 1810 to Princess Maria Theresia, Charlotte Louise von Sachsen. The celebration of his wedding was to be the beginning of the Oktoberfest tradition.
1826: The University of Landshut moves to Munich.
1848 - 1864: King Maximillian II. 1848-64 made 3rd King of Bavaria he promotes Art Science and Industry in Munich.
1864 - 1886: King Ludwig II is made King after the death of his father King Maximillian II. Music, arts and crafts flourish under his rule. Richard Wagner in Munich makes the world premieres of several of his music dramas with the financial backing of King Ludwig II.
1870 - 1: War with France.
1886: King Ludwig II declares war against the Prussians. He would be found drowned with Doctor Gudden in the lake of Starnberg near Munich in the summer of this year.
1886 - 1912: Prinzregent Luitpold replaces him and is culturally very active.
1893: Munich possesses the first street lighting in Europe made by the Uncle of Albert Einstein.
1911: First exhibition of the Blue Riders, a romantic-expressionist artists' association called (Blue Horseman): Franz Marc, Wassily Kandinsky and several others. Their work can be seen in several collections in Munich. Please visit my Blue Rider Tour number 14.
1912 - 1918: King Ludwig the III must step down in 1918, ending 800 years of rule by the Wittlesbach line. 1255-1918
1916: During bombing raids, three French bombs fall on Munich.
1919: Minister-President Kurt Eisner is assassinated in Munich, and the Räte-Republic is declared.
1920: The NSDAP (Nazi Party) organizes its first demonstrations in the Bavaria.
1923: Hitler's Putsch is halted by the Munich Police next to the Feldherrnhalle. For the Nazis, Munich is the capital of the Nazi movement.
1930: The first television set in the world is exhibited in the Deutsche Museum.
1933: National Socialist took over in March 9, 1938.
1938: With the "Treaty of Munich", the major European powers bow to Hitler's demand to absorb the Southern Lands into the Third Reich; thereby hoping to stop the threat of war.
1939: The carpenter Georg Elsener tries to assassinate Hitler in the beer hall Bürgerbräu-Keller. He will spend the rest of his life in Dachau Concentration Camp and was hung in April of 1945, shortly before Munich's liberation.
1943: The execution of the brother and sister Scholl; they were founders of the student movement the "White Rose". They tried to weaken the Nazis influence on the University students in Munich with a leaflet campaign.
1945: After 71 air raids over a period of six years, 90% of Munich is destroyed. Munich is occupied by the Americans troops on (April 30th 1945).
1957: Munich had a population of one million by December 15th of this year.
1958: 800th Birthday of Munich.
1972: Olympic Summer games in Munich.
1974: Soccer's World Cup in Munich.
1986: "Royal Year": 100th anniversary of the death of Ludwig II and 200th birthday of Ludwig I.
1989: 200th anniversary of the English Garden founded by the Wittlesbach. 400th anniversary of Munich's Hofbräuhaus founded in 1585 (court brewery) being the oldest beer hall in Germany!
1992: Opening the of Munich's New International Airport "Franz-Josef-Strauss".
1994: 500th anniversary of the Cathedral Church of Our Lady, Munich's landmark famous for the two church towers an important symbol of the city.
1998: Opening of the new convention center the "Neue Messe". This is located at the site of the former airport of Riem.
2002: The "Pinakothek der Moderne" is opened.
2003: Opening of airport terminal 2.
2006: With the opening of the new Alliance Arena, Munich hosted the starting games of the World Soccer Championship.
2006: Opening of Ohel Jakob Synagogue (meaning "Jacob's Tent") built 2004-2006 as the new main synagogue of Munich. The Synagogue was inaugurated on November 9, 2006.
2007: Opening Jewish Museum Munich. Visit my tour number 20.
2008: Celebration of Munich_s 850 Birthday.
2009: Munich newest Museum; The Brandhorst Collection Opens April 27, 2009.